by James V Stone

Quantum mechanics is famously strange. But Schrödinger’s dead and alive cat, Einstein’s spooky action at a distance, and de Broglie’s matter waves are mere trifles compared to the greatest strangeness: quantum mechanics can be used to edit events that should have already happened; in other words, to re-write history.

However, before we can understand how this is possible, we first need to know how Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle accounts for wave-particle duality in the the double-slit experiment.

The Double-Slit Experiment

The double-slit experiment is famous because it provides an unequivocal demonstration that light behaves like a wave. But the importance…

by James V Stone, University of Sheffield, UK.

Max Planck, a 42-year-old pillar of the scientific elite, had no intention of killing off classical physics. Despite this, he effectively hammered the first nail into the coffin of classical physics in 1900, and by 1926 it was under six feet of earth, with a headstone that could have said, “Nice Try”.

By 1900, it was known that an oven at a given temperature emits radiation, and that the spectrum of radiation has the same characteristic form irrespective of the shape of the oven. These facts suggested there was something fundamental about…

by James V Stone, University of Sheffield, UK.

“There is a theory which states that if ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.
There is another theory which states that this has already happened.”
Douglas Adams.


Isaac Newton (1642–1726) derived equations that work extraordinarily well in describing how planets orbit the sun and how apples fall from trees, so these equations have a clear physical interpretation in terms of everyday experience. …

by James V Stone

“If you want to understand a really complicated device, like a brain, you should build one.”
G Hinton, 2018.

The development of modern artificial neural networks occurred in a series of step-wise dramatic improvements, interspersed with periods of stasis (often called neural network winters). As early as 1943, before commercial computers existed, McCulloch and Pitts began to explore how small networks of artificial neurons could mimic brain-like processes. …

‘The Emperor’s New AI’ by Seb Stone.

We set sail on this new sea because there is new knowledge to be gained … for the progress of all people. For space science, like nuclear science and all technology, has no conscience of its own. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man …

President JF Kennedy, 1963.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is not only possible, but inevitable. The only question is: when will artificial intelligence arrive?

Before Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the first aeroplane in 1903, sceptics declared that a machine could never fly like a bird¹. Today, many of us are like…

James V Stone

James V Stone is an Honorary Associate Professor at the University of Sheffield, England. Published books:

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